Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the country's second largest city after İstanbul. The city has a population of 4,319,167 (Province 5,153,000) , and a mean elevation of 850 m. (2800 ft.) It was formerly known as Angora or Engürü, and in Roman times as Ancyra, and in classical and Hellenistic periods as Ἄγκυρα Ánkyra.
Anıtkabir, Atatürk's mausoleum. Anıtkabir is located on an imposing hill in the Anittepe quarter of the city stands the mausoleum of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, founder of the Republic of Turkey. Completed in 1953, it is an impressive fusion of ancient and modern architecture. An adjacent museum houses a superior wax statue of Atatürk, his writings, letters and personal items, as well as an exhibition of photographs recording important moments in his life and in the establishment of the Republic (Anitkabir is open everyday, and the adjacent museum every day except Mondays).
The Ankara Ethnography Museum (Etnoğrafya Müzesi): This museum is opposite the Opera House on Talat Pasa Boulevard, in Ulus district. There is a fine collection of folkloric as well as Seljuk- and Ottoman-era artifacts.
The Museum of Anatolian Civilizations (Anadolu Medeniyetleri Müzesi): Situated at the Ankara Castle entrance, it is an old "bedesten" (covered bazaar) that has been beautifully restored and now houses a unique collection of Paleolithic, Neolithic, Hatti, Hittite, Phrygian, Urartian, and Roman works and showpiece Lydian treasures.
The Çengelhan Rahmi M. Koç Museum (Çengelhan Rahmi M. Koç Müzesi): is an industrial museum opposite the entrance to the Citadel, close to Anatolian Civilization Museum. Located in the historic Çengelhan - a former Caravanserai, built in 1522 - the Museum displays huge variety of exhibits on such diverse themes as Engineering, Road Transport, Scientific Instruments, Maritime, Medicine, and many others. The beautiful and atmospheric courtyard now houses the newly restored shop where the founder of the Koç Group, Mr Vehbi Koç started his working life. And when you have finished your museum visit, you can relax in either the Divan Café or the sophisticated Divan Brasserie in the courtyard.
The State Art and Sculpture Museum (The Painting and Sculpture Museum) (Resim-Heykel Müzesi): Close to the Ethnography Museum and houses a rich collection of Turkish art from the late 19th century to the present day. There are also galleries which host guest exhibitions.
The War of Independence Museum (Kurtuluş Savaşı Müzesi): In Ulus Square, is what was originally the first parliament building of the Republic of Turkey. There the War of Independence was planned and directed here as recorded in various photographs and items presently on exhibition. In another display, wax figures of former presidents of the Republic of Turkey are on exhibit.
The TCDD Locomotive Museum: Near the railway station by Celal Bayar Blvd., is a very interesting open-air museum that traces the history of steam locomotion through the locomotives and artifacts on display.